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One of the instances can be seen in the following example: Both sides played cautiously. Teams colluded with one another. In this case, side and team are the words for which there is only one equivalence in Persian, while in Italian, side is referred to as parte and team means squadra. It should be mentioned that the frequency of these kinds of words in Persian translation should be taken into consideration since the target language, Persian in this case, becomes repetitive as the same word has to be used on each occurrence. Chesterman , P5 notes such a criticism which is lexical impoverishment or loss of lexical variation against transla- tion.

However, the only reasonable way to transfer the meaning in Persian is using the target term tim. This can be seen in the Italian language, as well. The data yielded by the source materials of this research provide evidence that there are some expressions in English football terminol- ogy for which there are the same number of equivalent in Persian, but only one equivalent in Italian. Are you going to the match this Saturday? Vai alla partita sabato prossimo?

The examples above shed light that the terms match, game, and fixture have been translated with different words both in Italian and Persian, i. It should be noted that the use of Italian and Persian translation for game, match, and fixture can be interchangeable depending on the context and formality in Persian and register in Italian.

As Igno , p. As a result, according to Vinay and Darbelnet , p. Many linguistics scholars have based their commentaries on the assumption that there is a considerable amount of war-related terminol- ogy in football language According to Newmark , p. Some of the examples proving that the translated expressions have the same image in the target language are described as below: Table 5.

Translation of Football Terminology with the Same Image in Italian and Persian The aforementioned words are clearly associated with war. Positions in football such as striker conveys the same image in these languages. The translations presented in the target languages follow the strategy Newmark , PP. It seems that his strategy, reproducing the same image of the source language metaphorical expression in the target language, could be employed for many football terminol- ogy instances. However, what Newmark , P.

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There are some metaphorical expressions in English termi- nology of football which require the literal translation method of Newmark , P. As a result, the examples below deploy literal language method Newmark, , P. Literal Translation of Football Terminology in Italian English Italian Empty net15 [a] porta vuota Centre referee arbitro principale [di campo] Counter attack contrattacco [ripartenza] Disciplinary body organo disciplinare [also plural] Table 7.

As a result, the occurrence of the loanwords might be very convenient for Persian translators. However, as Bergh and Ohlander , P. The next set of examples illustrate the frequency of borrowings and calques in both Italian and Persian. That goal was ruled out by the referee for offside.


The pass was intercepted by the opponent. The cross from the side of the field went right to the other player. What we can infer from the examples examined is that the number of borrowed words in Persian is more than those in Ital- ian. However, when it comes to idiomatic expressions with these words, the translator needs to consult with parallel texts to render an understandable translation. For instance, the word offside is sometimes used with the verb to be caught. The idiomatic expression to be caught in offside cannot be translated literally. Football corpora in English provide confirmatory evidence that there are some expressions which require a different method of translation: Table 8.

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However, in terms of rendering the equivalence in Italian and Persian, the is- sue of appropriateness introduced by Newmark should be taken into consideration. The researcher came up with the word harif in the Persian language which seems to be more acceptable for follow- ers of football in Iran. In Italian, this expression can be translated as avversaria. Thus, there is no war-related connotation in English football terminology compared to Italian and Persian. So the allusion to war has been added to the target languages. Conclusion Football is the most popular sport in Italy24 and Iran25 and carry- ing out research projects in this field is both interesting and essential.

This study aimed to investigate and trace the strategies used in trans- lating football terminology from English into Italian and Persian.

After investigating and tracing the translation theories in the target texts, this study came to posit that it is more appropriate to reduce the images to literal language for the Persian language as in the Italian language indirect loanwords can be found in Italian football terminology. What has emerged from the set of examples compared and analysed in this essay validates the view that translating football texts can be particularly challenging as a manifestation of football language is code-mixing This study has also shed light on how the language of football works, particularly its use of semi-fixed expressions.

Furthermore, parallel texts are considered to be an invaluable help for translators in every language so that they can come up with transferring the right meaning The opportunity to access parallel texts can be useful for checking the frequency of the synonyms and collocations28 in the target language.

Since football is a code-mixing language, translators, interpreters, and com- mentators need to be aware of the formation of their language production to prevent any mistranslation. References Afarinasadi, F. Sociolinguistic Implications of Sports-Register Equivalence.

ITALIAN Archives - Ingrid Beatrice Coman

Saarbrucken: Lambert academic publishing. Bergh, G. Revista Veredas, 15 2. Free kicks, dribblers and WAGs. Moderna Sprak.

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Bray, K. How to Score: Science and the Beautiful Game.

London: Granta. Chapanga, E. Charteris-Black, J. Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Chesterman, A.

Claims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Fahim Afarinasadi 51 Chomsky, N.

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Some controversial questions in phonologi- cal theory. Journal of Linguistics, 1, 97— Crystal, D. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language Vol. Cambridge University Press Cambridge. Translating medical ter- minologies through word alignment in parallel text corpora. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42 4 , — A history of Italian football.

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Igno, R. Lakoff, G. Metaphor and war: The metaphor system used to justify war in the Gulf. Chicago: The Uni- versity of Chicago Press. Lewandowski, M. The language of soccer — a sociolect or a register? The rhetoric of violence in Polish and English soccer. Language, Communication, Information, 87— Shahidi, Ed. Tehran: Amirkabir. Munday, J. Theories and ap-plication. London: Routledge. Muysken, P. Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing Vol. Cambridge University Press.