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Print Flyer Recommend to Librarian. More options … Overview Content Contact Persons. Frontmatter Pages i-iv. Download PDF. Contents Pages v-vi.
List of Acronyms Pages vii-viii. Academic journals, environmental organizations and even the popular press re-affirm that we live on a planet becoming more the same at every turn. As James MacKinnon poetically describes in his Once and Future World , we are living in a per-cent world, one with only a fraction of the natural variety and liveliness it once had.
This is our situation: growth in legal, policy and cultural attention to biodiversity loss sits alongside growth in the rates of biodiversity loss. The woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus , whose habitat runs from the eastern border of B.
For many conservationists, the turn to economics and markets over the past two decades feels like a last hope. Walking through the streets of Trondheim, Norway, at the end of a major conference on biodiversity in , a Canadian bureaucratic-scientist wearily told me that biodiversity must be made relevant to the Ministry of Finance in order to survive.
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Such relevance is created by calculating and valuing the ecosystem services provided by nature ecosystem services are defined as the benefits that humans receive from the work of ecosystems: water purification provided by wetlands or most famously, the carbon sequestration services of living, photosynthesizing ecosystems. This, the idea goes, would reduce global carbon emissions by paying developing countries to stop cutting down their forests, with the funding generated via the regulated international carbon market.
Countries like Canada would be able to offset the tar sands, say, by investing in forest conservation in Madagascar. Such a mechanism, it hopes, would make forests worth more alive than dead. It can involve establishing differences between one or another course of action, like in cost-benefit analysis. A government might ask: are more services produced by a standing, diverse forest or an oil palm planation? It is a variation on the compromise of sustainable development forged in in Rio, when heads of state decided that global environmental problems and vast inequities could be solved by a steady application of economic growth and technological innovation.
It is an approach that leaves, for the most part, the foundations of our society intact: capitalist, nation-state centred and economic growth-oriented — but this time: green growth.
The Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism - Steven F. Bernstein - كتب Google
Hence: pragmatic, meaning a sensible, realistic approach to saving the planet. Illustration by Ian Whadcock. Such a dream cannot be separated from colonialism. In his other hand, the businessman is holding a big bag of money; coercion and cash payments appear intimately linked.
This image portrays a stark imbalance of power and a continuity of asymmetrical power relations. The image reflects a well-worn trope in international environmentalism — poor people like this peasant cause biodiversity loss through his demand for firewood or income, problems to be solved in this case by paying the peasant to live otherwise. The Earth Summit catalyzed the process of institutionalizing these norms, which predicate environmental pro tection on the promotion and maintenance of a liberal economic order. To support this claim, this article identifies the specific norms institutionalized since Rio that undergird international environmental treaties, policies and programs.
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Liberal Environmentalism and Global Environmental Governance
Environmental resource management. Citations Publications citing this paper. Prudence Nontobeko Khumalo.